Causes of high blood pressure
Elevated or high blood pressure (hereinafter referred to as BP) is a condition that is diverse in its manifestations. It is based on strengthening the tone of arterioles — small blood vessels that precede capillaries. Often this condition is physiological and does not pose a threat to life. For example, in a healthy person at night, his indicators decrease slightly, and in the morning, during the beginning of activity, they increase.
The threshold pressure values are 140/90 mm Hg. Exceeding these indicators indicates the possible development of the disease and the need to consult with your doctor.
If the increase in blood pressure becomes systematic, that is, repeated repeatedly, they talk about the development of such a disease as hypertension, essential hypertension or arterial hypertension. Arterial hypertension often accompanies many chronic diseases, such as diabetes or coronary heart disease.
“I have high blood pressure,” they often say in everyday life. This condition of high blood pressure can be associated with exposure to various causes. Taking into account the factors that contribute to the development of cardiovascular complications-or the overall cardiovascular risk — is very important for the timely diagnosis of arterial hypertension. Thanks to it, the doctor can assess the prognosis and the need for treatment in time, because hypertension is often asymptomatic.
With consistently high blood pressure, there are usually two types of hypertension: primary and secondary.
Primary or essential hypertension (in other words, it is also called hypertension). Hypertension prevails among all forms of arterial hypertension, its prevalence is over 90%. This is a chronic disease in which high blood PRESSURE is not associated with the identification of obvious causes that lead to the development of secondary arterial hypertension. Most often, the disease develops slowly, over many years, under the influence of various negative factors, usually against the background of a hereditary predisposition.
Secondary or symptomatic hypertension. These are diseases in which the cause of increased blood PRESSURE is damage to various organs or systems, and arterial hypertension is only one of the symptoms of the disease. It can develop against the background of a number of diseases or pathological conditions, such as endocrine diseases, chronic kidney diseases, blood vessel diseases, and many others. In addition, taking certain medications (hormonal contraceptives, corticosteroids, etc.) may cause the development of secondary arterial hypertension.
Due to the variety of causes of hypertension, it is difficult for patients to independently assess the level of risk. Therefore, a doctor’s consultation is necessary for timely diagnosis. They will prescribe the necessary treatment and tell you what to do to prevent the development of complications.
There are many risk factors that can affect an increase in blood pressure. Their long-term impact on the background of a hereditary predisposition to the development of certain diseases can lead to the development of hypertension. Control of risk factors will reduce the likelihood of complications, such as heart attacks and strokes.
Age. The risk of developing hypertension increases with age. As a rule, the first cases appear in men under the age of 55, in women-after 65 years. According to the who, one in three adults worldwide has high blood pressure. The influence of age in this case is associated with age-related vascular changes and an increase in the number of concomitant chronic diseases. The cumulative effect of other risk factors, such as overweight, bad habits, sedentary lifestyle, and unhealthy diet, also plays a role.
Hereditary predisposition. Family history is one of the most important factors in assessing the risks of high blood pressure and the development of cardiovascular diseases. Of particular importance are the early development of diseases in the family, in particular, for men-earlier than 55 years, for women-earlier than 654. In this case, the inheritance of a tendency to high blood pressure is estimated from 35 to 50%.
Being overweight or obese. Excess body weight is closely associated with increased blood pressure. But the loss of every 5 kg of excess weight can contribute to a decrease in indicators by 2-10 mm Hg.
Low or no physical activity. Lack of physical activity, according to who, is the 4th most important risk factor for mortality in the world. According to who recommendations, adults between the ages of 18 and 64 should exercise for at least 150 minutes a week. For people over 65 years of age, these recommendations are maintained, taking into account that the exercise should be feasible and correspond to the physical capabilities of patients.
On the other hand, excessive, excessive physical activity can cause an increase in blood pressure even in a healthy and trained person. In weakened, physically untrained people, sudden exertion usually causes a more pronounced increase in blood pressure.
Poor diet. Failure to follow the principles of a healthy, rational diet can increase the risk of developing a number of cardiovascular diseases. In particular, a large amount of animal fat in food affects the level of cholesterol in the blood. This can lead to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques that narrow the lumen of blood vessels. A small amount of fruits and vegetables in the diet can also affect the risk of developing high blood pressure. Plant-based products are one of the main sources of potassium and magnesium salts for humans. Their deficiency leads to a violation of the salt balance and increased blood pressure.
Excess salt in the diet Data from numerous clinical studies confirm that regular consumption of more than 9-12 g of table salt leads to an increase in blood pressure. Reducing the amount of salt to 5 g per day reduces blood pressure by 4-5 mm Hg.
Alcohol abuse. There is a strong Association between significant alcohol use and hypertension. Experts recommend to exclude the use of alcohol.
Prolonged stress. Both prolonged stress and short-term intense emotional experiences can have a negative impact on the body. The risk of developing hypertension may be increased in people who are prone to a sharp emotional reaction to irritating factors.
Smoking – causes an increase in blood pressure and heart rate for at least 15 minutes after Smoking each cigarette. It is known that nicotine negatively affects the tone of blood vessels, contributing to a violation of the function of the endothelium – the inner wall of blood vessels. Complete Smoking cessation reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases, such as heart attacks and strokes, and the development of coronary heart disease.