The mechanism of action of incretins Incretins are a person’s hormones produced by the gastrointestinal tract at the time of admission to him for food. Due to their action, the production of insulin increases, which helps to digest glucose, which is released during digestion. To date, two types of incretins have been discovered: GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1); GIP (insulinotropic polypeptide). The receptors of the first are located in different organs, which allows it to show a broader effect. The second is controlled by the pancreatic -cell receptors.
Among the main mechanisms of their action are: the increase in the secretion of the hormone insulin pancreatic cells; slowing gastric emptying; reduction in the production of glucagon; decreased appetite and satiety; the improvement of the heart and blood vessels, positive effect on the nervous system. With an increase in the production of insulin, glucose is absorbed better, but if it is normal, the secretion process stops and the person is not in danger of hypoglycemia. Reducing the volume of glucagon-an insulin antagonist, leads to a reduction in the expenditure of liver glycogen and the release of free glucose, while simultaneously contributing to an increase in the expenditure of glycogen in the muscles. As a result, glucose is used immediately at the site of production, without entering the blood. When the release of the stomach slows down, food enters the intestines in small portions, which reduces the volume of glucose absorption into the blood and, accordingly, increases its concentration.
Coming in smaller batches, it is more easily absorbed by the body. At the same time, a decrease in appetite limits overeating. The effect on the circulatory system has only been noted, but not studied. It was found that incretins help pancreatic -cells recover faster. It is impossible to get the hormones themselves in pure form in sufficient quantities, so scientists have developed analogues that perform similar functions: reproducing the action of the glucogon-like peptide-1; reducing the impact of destructive enzymes, thus prolonging the life of hormones. Saxagliptin belongs to the second group. Lost weight for a month on 54 kg girl from San Jose, blew up the Internet by losing weight … 10 hours back to Who can’t eat garlic: doctors ‘ response 2 hours ago forms of release Onglizasaxagliptin is part of the drug Ongliza, acting as a DPP-4 inhibitor. This remedy is not included in the Federal list of preferential medicines, but can be issued to patients with diabetes at the expense of local budget funding. The drug is available in the form of tablets with a yellowish shell containing 2.5 mg of saxagliptin or 5 mg of its hydrochloride.
The composition also includes components that optimize the effect of the active substance. Tablets are marked with a label indicating their dosage. Tablets are Packed in a blister of 10 pieces and a cardboard package. Indications and contraindications Preparations based on saxagliptin are recommended for use in: Prediabetic stage, when traditional measures including diet, exercise, and other recommendations do not help. The tool allows you to stop the destruction of -cells and thereby slow down the development of type 2 diabetes in the Presence of a diagnosed disease. In this case, the drug can be used as an independent medicine or in combination with other drugs: Metformin; insulin; sulfonylurea derivatives; thiazolidinediones. Contraindications to taking the drug are: type 1 diabetes mellitus; excessive susceptibility to any of the components of the drug; high sensitivity to DPP-4 inhibitors; the presence of diabetic ketoacidosis; non-digestibility of lactose and lactase insufficiency, congenital glucose-galactose malabsorption; gestation and lactation time; underage age. In these cases, analogues of the drug are used or funds with a different composition are selected. Joint therapy Effectiveness of starting therapy saxagliptin+Metformin instructions for use Tablets are taken orally without taking into account food consumption.
The capsule is swallowed whole and washed down with a small amount of water. The dosage depends on the type of therapy and the patient’s well-being. When used separately, saxagliptin is recommended to take 5 mg once a day. In combination therapy with other diabetic drugs, the dosage is 5 mg per day, the same applies to the addition of saxagliptin to the already used combination of hypoglycemic agents. 5 places in the house where you can not keep money: a girl who Lost 54 kg in a month from San Jose, blew up the Internet by losing weight… Read at the initial stage of use of the substance with Metformin, the dosage of saxagliptin is 5 milligrams, and Metformin is 500 milligrams per day. For patients with kidney diseases, the dosage is reduced to 2.5 mg per day. If hemodialysis is used, the drug is drunk after it is finished. The effect of the drug on peritoneal dialysis has not been studied. In any case, before prescribing the drug, experts recommend that the patient’s kidneys be examined. For patients with liver function abnormalities, dose adjustment is not necessary. Treatment is carried out according to General recommendations.
This also applies to elderly patients, provided that they do not have kidney problems. The study of the effect of the drug on the fetus in pregnant women and young children has not been conducted. Therefore, it is difficult to predict its consequences. Other, proven remedies are usually used for these patients. If the woman in the lactation period takes saxagliptin, it should stop feeding. In the case of simultaneous administration with active CYP3A4/5 inhibitors, the daily dosage of the drug is reduced by half. These are the following medications: Ketoconazole; Clarithromycin; Atazanavir; Indinavir; Nefazodone; Itraconazole; Ritonavir; Telithromycin; Nelfinavir; Saquinavir and others. When taking saxagliptin, the patient continues to implement General recommendations for organizing a diet, dosed physical exercises, and monitoring the psycho-emotional state. Side effects and overdose the Drug has almost no side effects. Its main advantage is that there is no risk of hypoglycemia. However, like any synthetic drug, it affects the physiological processes of the body, contributing to their change, which can lead to: the development of infectious diseases of the respiratory system; dyspeptic disorders; sinusitis; headache; gastroenteritis; development of inflammation in the urine-sexual system. If you observe any of these signs, you should complain to your doctor, who will choose a more correct dosage of the drug or change it to other tablets. Overdose was not detected in clinical trials, and concentrations 80 times higher than recommended were used. In case of symptoms of overdose (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, weakness, etc.), treatment is carried out according to the symptoms with the earliest possible elimination of the drug from the body, which is easiest to do through hemodialysis. When combined with other drugs, pronounced deviations were not detected. However, concomitant use with Metformin and thiazolidinediones has not been investigated.