Mediterranean diet can improve glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes

Mediterranean diet can improve glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes

What is the Mediterranean diet?

The reason why this diet was awarded the title of Mediterranean is that residents of France, Spain, Italy and Greece, that is, countries belonging to the Mediterranean basin, according to who, occupy a leading position in the number of centenarians. Scientists became interested in the reason for this fact. Of course, one of the main “suspects” was the diet of the inhabitants of these countries. It turned out that they are big fans of fruits, nuts, legumes, olive oil, fish and attention! – guilt. The term “Mediterranean diet” originated in the 50-XX years of the last century – it is during this period that scientists study the principles of nutrition of the inhabitants of the Mediterranean countries. Today, after more than 60 years, this diet is still considered one of the most balanced in terms of nutritional components. It is difficult to call it a diet in the usual sense for us. The “test subject” has a large number of products to choose from. Basic principles of the Mediterranean diet one of the most important principles of this diet is the absolute rejection of the use of refined products. Mediterranean residents are literally in love with seafood, so the menu for the Mediterranean diet must include sardines, trout, shrimp, halibut, tuna, etc. They should be consumed at least 4 times a week, ideally every other day. In any business, preparation is important.

Before starting the Mediterranean diet, it is important to fully unload the body, consuming as little carbohydrate and fatty foods as possible, and as much water as possible. Of course, it will be difficult for type 1 diabetics to perform this type of unloading without prior knowledge and experience in calculating and recalculating insulin doses. So, if you are not sufficiently aware of the principles of calculating the necessary doses of insulin per meal, it is better to abandon this diet. Unloading takes an average of 3 days, and during this period the body is cleared of many toxins and slags that have accumulated for a long time. According to the founders of this diet, if you skip the unloading stage and immediately start following the diet, you should not expect any positive effect. This is how much attention they pay to the initial stage of cleaning the body before the diet itself. The caloric content of the diet for the day, with all its diversity, should not exceed 800 kcal, which must be divided into 3 main and 2 or 1 “snack” reception. Eat a lot of meat (beef) you can’t either, and it’s better to forget about fat red meat. Legumes and vegetables can be eaten, and it is mandatory to use unrefined olive oil during the day.

Vegetables are preferably eaten raw, you can use a variety of salads. It is recommended to include fruit in the 3 main meals. The main principle here is little by little, but often. With eggs, too, do not overdo it: 2 chicken eggs per week will be just right. According to the principles of the diet of the inhabitants of the Mediterranean, it is necessary to add various spices, as well as onions and herbs to the food consumed. Dairy products are allowed, but in limited quantities. It is best to opt for natural yogurt or bio-kefir, but just milk or the usual cottage cheese are allowed. What is very interesting, adherents of this diet can not deny themselves alcohol. In their opinion, a glass of dry red wine for the day will be just in time, because a good dry wine helps to stimulate the cardiovascular system. It is difficult, of course, to reconcile this principle with the principles of nutrition for patients with diabetes. The article “Alcohol in diabetes” describes in detail the use of alcoholic beverages in diabetes. And, of course, one of the most important and very pleasant features of the Mediterranean diet is that you can stick to it as much as you like. There are no specific figures for the number of days of dieting. According to the rules of this diet, Breakfast should not be tight. The ideal option is to drink just a Cup of black coffee without adding sugar. Lunch and dinner should be more high-calorie, and sometimes they can be combined into one meal. Personally, I do not quite agree with this statement of scientists, but for now I just pass on information on the basic conditions for observing the Mediterranean diet.

During your stay in the diet mode, you can also lose extra pounds. On average, it takes about 3-4 kilograms of weight in 3 months. Mediterranean diet for diabetes so, why patients with type 2 diabetes are recommended to adhere to the principles of the Mediterranean diet. The fact is that scientists from the University of Naples in Italy found that such a diet helps people with high sugar to improve the functioning of the heart muscle and blood vessels, as well as get rid of excess weight. It is not surprising that the diet is especially indicated for people with pre-diabetes, metabolic syndrome, impaired carbohydrate tolerance and a hereditary predisposition to the “sweet” disease. If you can use it to stabilize the weight, it is possible that diabetes will bypass you, and is not this what you should strive for from the very beginning?… But this does not mean that one Mediterranean diet will solve everything. Do not forget about regular dosed physical activity or at least daily evening walks in the Park. Those who like to ride a bike, let them do their favorite thing more often, it’s a real pleasure! Scientists from Italy conducted an experiment. Using the example of 560 diabetics, they decided to compare different diets and their impact on type 2 diabetes. The subjects were divided into 3 groups, the diet of the first of which contained a low percentage of fat (55% consisted of carbohydrates). The second group ate exclusively low-carb food (50% – fat and only 20% carbohydrates), and the third group was given a choice of products from the menu of the Mediterranean diet (fish, legumes, olive oil, nuts, etc.). Women from the third group were allowed to consume 150 ml of dry wine per day with food, and men – as much as 200! So, what were the results? Did the second group win? Scientists also initially relied on this result. But it turned out that the menu of the Mediterranean diet caused the least hyperglycemia. Plus, with its help, many patients managed to normalize triglyceride levels in the blood, which means avoiding the development of atherosclerosis. pasta in the Mediterranean diet in second place was a low-carb diet, and in third, of course, a diet with a low fat content. According to the researchers, the low-carb diet, although it did not cause sharp spikes in glycemia, did not have any effect on the blood lipid profile, and did not sufficiently protect against late complications of diabetes.

Mediterranean diet: example menu Finally, a small sample menu for the week for those who want to start following the Mediterranean diet. Monday: 1. a Cup of green tea, 1 loaf of bread with jam. 2. a glass of milk. 3. egg, a plate of pasta with vegetables and red pepper. 4. herbal tea, spaghetti with 50 g of grated cheese. Tuesday: 1. muesli filled with low-fat milk. 2. 1.5 cups of milk. 3. vegetable soup with tomato paste + low-fat cheese. 4. pasta + seafood. Wednesday: 1. processed cheese with green tea or coffee. 2. low-fat milk. 3. ground chicken, vermicelli, herbal tea. 4. shrimp, 1 egg. Thursday: 1. bread with low-fat cottage cheese. 2. bio-kefir – 1 Cup. 3. bean soup + a glass of low-fat yogurt. 4. chicken with rice. Friday: 1. jam with bread + herbal tea. 2. low-fat cottage cheese. 3. pea soup, some mushrooms. 4. spicy meat goulash. Saturday: 1. grain bread + a Cup of black coffee. 2. a glass of milk. 3. spaghetti with ham + milk sauce. 4. seafood + greens. Sunday: 1. green tea + bread. 2. natural yogurt – a small glass. 3. tuna, pink salmon or any other fish + some soup without meat. 4. herbal tea, rice with chicken cutlet. According to the principles of the Mediterranean diet, no matter what diet you choose, you can not go beyond 800 kcal per day. So all selected foods must be low-fat and low-calorie.

Douglas Badenoch
I am an information scientist with an interest in making knowledge from systematic research more accessible to people who need it. This means you. I've been attempting this in the area of Evidence-Based Health Care since 1995. So far the results have been mixed. For some reason we expected busy clinicians to search databases and appraise papers instead of seeing patients. We also expected publishers to make the research freely available to the people who paid for it.. Ha! Hence The National Elf service.

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